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Assessing the Validity and Reliability of a Questionnaire on Child Television Watching in Tehran City, Iran

 

1-The comparative effect of different types of
honey on levels of glucose, fructosamine and
insulin in Streptozocin-induced diabetes in
wistar rats

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of diabetes is increasing rapidly. Diabetic patients are deprived of sugar sweetener consumption due to their high blood sugar.
Choosing appropriate substitutes in the meal plan of diabetic patients is one of the important therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types of honey on the concentration of glucose, fructosamine and insulin of diabetic rats. This study was an interventional clinical trial animal study. In this study, 32 Wistar rats were used,
which were divided into 4 groups. The drug of Streptozocin was used to induce diabetes in 4 groups of rats. Three types of Acacia honey, Astragalus honey, and Nodushan Yazd honey were used in 3 groups of diabetic rats and 1 group also was considered as control groups of diabetic and normal groups. Difference in blood Fructosamine of diabetic rats was not significant
in the receiver groups of different types of honey. On the other hand, the Astragalus honey consumption significantly increased glucose and the Nodushan honey consumption significantly increased insulin concentration in diabetic rats. The present study showed that some types of honey do not have any negative effect on blood glucose concentration of diabetic rats, but they cause an increase in serum insulin concentration. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that some types of honey can be used as a safe natural sweetener and even can be beneficial.

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2-Validating and investigating reliability of
comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire

ABSTRACT

Background: The present research aims to validate and discuss the reliability of Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ).
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 150 mothers with 3-6 year old children in the city of Rasht were selected through cluster random sampling from the public and private kindergartens in 2010. After being confident about the translation validity, the degree of validation (content and structure) and validity (test-retest reliability and internal consistency) of the questionnaire was examined.
Results: The degree of validation of questionnaire content, except questions 2, 16 and 46, was at a high level and these three questions were omitted. The method of the consistency of factors and total scores of the questionnaire was used to study the validation of structure, which was satisfactory and varied between 0.30-0.72. The validity of questionnaire was examined through test-retest and Cronbach's alpha methods. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was between 0.80-0.91 and Cronbach's alpha was between 0.80-0.90. Conclusion: In general, the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) was proved to be valid and with respect to the results obtained from the present research, it can be used in the research on child diet.

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3-The Association of Genetic Variations with
Sensitivity of Blood Pressure to Dietary Salt: A
Narrative Literature Review

Abstract
Salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. Up to 50% of patients with essential hypertension are salt-sensitive, as manifested by a rise in BP with salt intake. Several genetic variations have been identified as being associated with salt sensitivity. The present study aimed to review the evidence on the effect of gene polymorphisms on the salt sensitivity of BP. We searched in PubMed website from 1990 to 2011, with the use of following keywords: “hypertension, dietary salt, polymorphisms, and blood pressure”. The effect of sodium intake on BP differed by genotype at the genes of the renin-angiotensin system, aldosterone synthase, cytochrome p450 3A, epithelial sodium channel genes, genes of sympathetic nervous system, β-3 subunit of G-protein, alpha-adducin, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, Kallikrein-Kinin system. These approaches suggest that these polymorphisms may be potentially useful genetic markers of BP response to dietary salt. There is evidence that genetic predisposition modulates the BP response to diet. Therefore, diet and nutrition can mitigate or enhance the effects of genetic predisposition. Increasing our knowledge of this relationship can lead to individualized treatment and increased understanding of hypertension.

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4-The Relationship between TV Viewing and Food

Intake and BMI in Preschool Children

Abstract

Background: Considerable attention is currently being paid to childhood nutrition. Mass media, particularly television (TV), is believed to largely contribute to eating habits and Body mass index (BMI). This study was carried out to identify the relation between tendency towards TV viewing and its influence on children with food intake and BMI in pre-school kids. Original Research Article Kalantari et al.; BJMMR, 14(10): 1-9, 2016; Article no.BJMMR.24970 2 Methodology: The survey was conducted using a cross-sectional design, in which 114 children aged 2-6 yrs from 11 selected nursery schools were included. Regarding data collection related to TV viewing rate and influence rate of TV viewing from parents' viewpoint, a valid and reliable questionnaire was used. To collect data about children's diets intake, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was applied. Face-to-face meetings and interviews with the parents were held. Height and weights of children were measured using a measuring tape and a digital weight scale. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical tests by SPSS software. 

Results: It turned out that consumption rate of some food groups including meats & alternatives
(p=0.008), sugars (p=0.013) and snacks & desserts (p=0.011) were higher in children who spend
more time watching TV. In addition, Intake of cereals and breads appeared to be higher in children with strong desire for TV food ads (p=0.019). It was also revealed that influence rate of TV viewing and fats intake were positively correlated (p=0.017). No significant relationship was revealed between TV viewing rate and BMI in children
Conclusion: It can be concluded that tendency of preschool children to TV is positively related with some food groups intake and consumption of low nutritional-value foods.

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5-The Relationship between TV Viewing and Food
Intake and BMI in Preschool Children

Abstract

Background: Considerable attention is currently being paid to childhood nutrition. Mass media, particularly television (TV), is believed to largely contribute to eating habits and Body mass index (BMI). This study was carried out to identify the relation between tendency towards TV viewing and its influence on children with food intake and BMI in pre-school kids. Original Research Article Kalantari et al.; BJMMR, 14(10): 1-9, 2016; Article no.BJMMR.24970 2
Methodology: The survey was conducted using a cross-sectional design, in which 114 children aged 2-6 yrs from 11 selected nursery schools were included. Regarding data collection related to TV viewing rate and influence rate of TV viewing from parents' viewpoint, a valid and reliable questionnaire was used. To collect data about children's diets intake, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was applied. Face-to-face meetings and interviews with the parents were held. Height and weights of children were measured using a measuring tape and a digital weight scale. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical tests by SPSS software.
Results: It turned out that consumption rate of some food groups including meats & alternatives (p=0.008), sugars (p=0.013) and snacks & desserts (p=0.011) were higher in children who spend more time watching TV. In addition, Intake of cereals and breads appeared to be higher in children with strong desire for TV food ads (p=0.019). It was also revealed that influence rate of TV viewing and fats intake were positively correlated (p=0.017). No significant relationship was revealed between TV viewing rate and BMI in children Conclusion: It can be concluded that tendency of preschool children to TV is positively related with some food groups intake and consumption of low nutritional-value foods.

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6-Maternal self-efficacy and feeding practices in
children aged 3-6 years

Abstract

Objective: Nutrition in childhood has an important role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother’s lifestyle has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child. This paper aimed to investigate the association between mother’s weight
efficacy lifestyle with feeding practices in children aged 3- 6 years. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child’s demographics. Aspects of mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle and mother’s control practices were assessed using Weight Efficacy Lifestyle (WEL) questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices questionnaire (CFPQ) respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. The role of mother’s weight efficacy in predicting child’s feeding practices was assessed using linear regression.
Results: Results showed that mother’s weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices. The mothers with similar weight efficacy lifestyle applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety, environmental control, child involvement and less emotion regulation using foods.
Conclusion: The result of the study showed that maternal l ifestyle was associated with child feeding practices.

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7-The association between Dairy Intake, Simple
Sugars and Body Mass Index with Expression
and Extent of Anger in Female Students

Abstract

Objective: A significant increase in violence in the world and its impact on public health and society can be an important reason to offer solutions to reduce or control anger. Studies have shown that specific food groups may be effective in controlling mental disorders such as depression, anxiety and anger. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between food intake and Body Mass Index on state-trait anger expression in female students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.
Method: In this cross-sectional study, 114 female students were randomly selected from dormitories of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Body height and weight were measured using the scale and stadiometer, respectively. The required data for evaluating the relationship between state-trait anger expression and food consumption groups were collected using State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) and Food Frequency questionnaires.
Results: The results revealed a significant negative correlation between consumption of dairy product and trait anger (angry reaction), (P = 0.015). This association remained significant after adjustment of confounding factors. No significant correlations were found between other food groups as well as BMI and state-trait anger expression.
Conclusion: The higher intake of dairy products reduced state-trait anger expression. This result is consistent with the findings of many studies on the effect of dairy consumption on mental disorders. Therefore, consumption of dairy products can be a solution for reducing anger.

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8-Knowledge, risk perception, and behavioral
intention about hepatitis C, among university
students

Abstract
Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major complex public health problem. Different resources have proved that healthcare workers more than the general population are at a risk of infection. Therefore, medical field students, due to the future occupational hazards, are included in the risk group. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the level of knowledge, public and individual risk perception, and behavioral intention about HCV, among medical sciences students of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive–analytical study that was conducted among 457 students of the Medical Sciences in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: The data was collected using a questionnaire. Sampling was done randomly. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed using the SPSS18 software and statistical tests of Pearson, Spearman, T‑ test, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA); P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Four hundred and fifty‑seven students (41.8% male and 58.2% female) in 29 fields of study (six categories) participated in this research. The mean age was 21.55 ± 2.6 years. The mean and standard deviations of the students’ knowledge was 3.71 ± 2.9 (out of 8), and the behavioral intention to accruing information and performance of preventive actions related to HCV was 11.52 ± 3.16 (out of 20). Public risk perception was 20.1 ± 3.5 (out of 30); and personal risk perception was 6.96 ± 1.8 (out of 10). The ANOVA test showed that public perception of the risk among students of different academic fields was different (F = 1.52, P < 0.05). Conclusions: According to the low knowledge of students of Medical Sciences in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences about HCV, it was recommended that the University Policymakers design an educational intervention about it, in order to minimize the chances of being infected.

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9-The Study of Association between Mother Weight
Efficacy Life-style with Feeding Practices, Food
Groups Intake and Body Mass Index in Children
Aged 3-6 Years

ABSTRACT
Background: Nutrition in childhood has a significant role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother’s life‑style has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child, child’s diet and body mass index (BMI). This study paper aimed to investigate the association between mother’s weight efficacy life‑style (WEL) with feeding practices and diet in children aged 3‑6 years. Methods: In this cross‑sectional study, which was carried out in 18 Primary Schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3‑6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child’s demographics. Aspects of mother’s WEL and mother’s control practices were assessed using WEL questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. Child’s dietary intake was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The role of mother’s weight efficacy in predicting child’s feeding practices and child’s diet was assessed using the linear regression. Statistical significance for all P values was set at 0.003. Results: The results were showed that mother’s weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices and child’s dietary intake. The mothers with similar WEL applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety (β = 1.860), environmental control (β = 0.437), child involvement (β = 0.203) and less emotion regulation using foods (β = −0.213) and their children eat fewer snacks (β = −0.318) (PV = 0.003). Conclusions: The result of this study showed that maternal life‑style was associated with feeding practices and child’s intake. There was no significant relation between the maternal self‑efficacy and child BMI.

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10-Effect of Magnesium Supplementation on
Physical Activity of Overweight or Obese
Insomniac Elderly Subjects: A Double-Blind
Randomized Clinical Trial

ABSTRACT

Background: Strategies for weight reduction often promote lifestyle changes like encouraging participation in physical activity. Also there is some evidence suggesting an association between insomnia and physical activity level and probable beneficial effect of magnesium supplementation on insomnia. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of magnesium supplementation on physical activity level in insomniac elderly subjects. Materials and Methods: A double blind randomized clinical trial was conducted in 46 overweight or obese subjects, randomly allocated into the magnesium or the placebo group and received 500 mg magnesium or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Questionnaires of insomnia severity index (ISI), physical activity and sleep-log were completed and serum magnesium measured at baseline and after the intervention period. Anthropometric confounding factors, daily intake of magnesium, calcium, potassium, caffeine, calorie form carbohydrates, fat, protein and total calorie intake, were obtained using 24-hrs recall for 3- days. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS-19 software. Results: No significant differences were observed in assessed variables between the two groups at the baseline. According to our research magnesium supplementation significantly increased sleep indices and physical activity level, also resulted in significantly decrease of total calorie intake in magnesium group. Although serum magnesium concentration and weight did not show any differences. Conclusion: In the present study magnesium supplementation resulted in improvement of sleep indices and physical activity level in elderly subjects. Although according to our short term intervention no significant beneficial effect was observed on subject`s weight.

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11-Study of the association of socio-demographic
factors and feeding practices with the dietary
intake in 3-6years old children

Abstract:
This paper aimed to investigate the association of social factors and feeding practices with the diet in 3- 6 years old children. A cross-sectional study of 208 parents with children aged 3-6 years was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht, Iran in 2011. Measures included social factors, aspects of parental control practices and the child’s diet. Mothers reported both their own and their child’s demographics. Aspects of child feeding practices were assessed by using Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ). Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was then used to assess the child’s dietary intake. Height and weight of mothers who participated in the study were also measured.The role of parental and child social and demographic factors and child feeding practices in predicting children’s diet was assessed by using multiple block entry linear regression. Results showed that children’s diet is related to the mother’s age, marital status, education and the child’s age and sex. Moreover, the mother’s encouragement of balanced diet and variety, food as reward, involvement of the child in food preparation, role modeling, monitoring, child control, restriction for health, and education about nutrition were also related to the child’s diet.The results showed a significant association between social factors and control practices on one hand, and aspects of the child’s diet, on the other hand.

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12-Association between Social and Demographic
Factors with Feeding Methods in 3-6-Years-
Old Children

Abstract:

Background: Healthy Nutrition has an important role in childhood. Food habits of a child probably will continue to adulthood and increase the risk of many chronic diseases. Role of parents in child nutrition as a food producer and eating pattern has recognized to most important factor of child nutrition. Recent studies have shown that the methods used by parents to child feeding have an important role in the child’s diet and BMI. This paper aimed to investigate which parents use which types of parenting control practices to manage their children’s nutrition. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 208 parents with children aged 3-6 years was carried out in 30 primary schools. Measures included demographic and social factors and aspects of child feeding practices.
Results: Results showed that stay at home mothers used more modeling practices. Mothers of sons used more pressure to eat than others. Older mothers used less pressure to eat. Mothers with higher BMI used more emotion regulation strategy and less modeling. And mothers with more education used more modeling. Conclusion: The results showed a significant relationship between demographic and social factors with aspects of the feeding practices.

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13-Assessing the Validity and Reliability of a Questionnaire

on Child Television Watching in Tehran City, Iran

Abstract
Introduction: Watching television (TV) is a popular pastime among Iranian children to the extent that it has been attributed to the rise of childhood obesity. The present study investigated the validity and reliability of a questionnaire on television watching of preschool children from the perspective of parents. Methods: A total of 114 mothers of children aged 2-6 years from 10 preschools in District 2, Tehran City, recruited by convenience, were interviewed after receiving their consent. The questionnaire consisted of 23 questions and two subscales on the amount of time and the perceived impact of watching TV. The validity (content and construct) and reliability (test-retest and internal consistency) of the questionnaire were analysed using SPSS (version 21). Results: Out of the original 23 questions, only 11 questions that met the criteria of the content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI) were selected and internal correlation of each subscale with total score was calculated and found to be satisfactory (0.566 and 0.685 respectively). Intraclass correlation coefficient was between 0.796 and 0.889 and Cronbach’s alpha was between 0.887 and 0.941. Conclusion: Overall, the validity of the questionnaire developed for this study was found to be satisfactory. This questionnaire could be applied in similar settings using larger sample sizes.
 

 


 

14- Review of studies on the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO)

gene interactions with environmental factors affecting on obesity

and its impact on lifestyle interventions

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Recently, it has been reported that an interaction between genotype and environmental factors can affect each other’s effects on the phenotype. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the recent studies on the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene interactions with environmental factors affecting on obesity and the impact of these interactions on the success level of the lifestyle intervention. METHODS: All articles published in English from June 1990 to June 2015 were studied. RESULTS: In most studies, the role of the FTO risk alleles for obesity is significantly intensified through reduced physical activity and high calorie diet. Furthermore, the results of studies about the effect of FTO on the success level of lifestyle interventions have been contradictory. Some studies show that FTO genotype influences on the success of lifestyle interventions, while other studies did not report it. CONCLUSION: The results of these studies generally indicate that the effect of the FTO gene on obesity may be influenced by environmental factors and lifestyle. In the other hand, the FTO genotype can affect the success of lifestyle interventions in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Future studies are crucial to elucidate relationships between FTO gene and lifestyle.
 
 

 

 15- Macronutrients and the FTO gene expression in hypothalamus;

a systematic review of experimental studies

 Abstract

The various studies have examined the relationship between FTO gene expression and macronutrients levels. In order to obtain better viewpoint from this interactions, all of existing studies were reviewed systematically. All published papers have been obtained and reviewed using standard and sensitive keywords from databases such as CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane, from 1990 to 2016. The results indicated that all of 6 studies that met the inclusion criteria (from a total of 428 published article) found FTO gene expression changes at short-term follow-ups. Four of six studies found an increased FTO gene expression after calorie restriction, while two of them indicated decreased FTO gene expression. The effect of protein, carbohydrate and fat were separately assessed and suggested by all of six studies. In Conclusion, The level of FTO gene expression in hypothalamus is related to macronutrients levels. Future research should evaluate the long-term impact of dietary interventions.
 
 
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